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Landsat

LANDSAT Technical Guide


Overview


Landsat Imagery is relatively High Resolution Earth Observation Data that is acquired through Sensors on one of the NASA Landsat Satellites. The Satellite Sensors acquire High Integrity Images of the Planet surface in a systematic fashion. Users can take this Imagery and use it to determine the health and type of Vegetation, amount of Built Surfaces, success of Agriculture, or apply it for a Myriad other uses like various Geological derived applications as well as various Mineral Exploration activities.


Table 1

Orbit and Acquisition Characteristics


Satellite

Sensor

Swath (km)

Scene Size (km)

Altitude (km)

Revisit (days)

Landsat 1-5

MSS

180

180 x 170

917

18

Landsat 4-5

TM

185

170 x 183

705

18

Landsat 7

ETM+

185

170 x 183

705

16

Landsat 8

LDCM

185

170 x 185

705

16

Table 2

Spectral Resolutions & Spatial Resolutions

Satellite

Spectral Resolution

Band

Spatial Resolution

Landsat 1-3

MSS


(Meters)


Band 4: 0.50 - 0.60

Green

79.00 Meter Resolution


Band 5: 0.60 - 0.70

Red

79.00 Meter Resolution


Band 6: 0.70 - 0.80

Near IR

79.00 Meter Resolution


Band 7: 0.80 - 1.10

Near IR

79.00 Meter Resolution

Landsat 4-5

MSS




Band 4: 0.50 - 0.60

Green

82.00 Meter Resolution


Band 5: 0.60 - 0.70

Red

82.00 Meter Resolution


Band 6: 0.70 - 0.80

Near IR

82.00 Meter Resolution


Band 7: 0.80 - 1.10

Near IR

82.00 Meter Resolution


TM




Band 1: 0.45 - 0.52

Blue

30.00 Meter Resolution


Band 2: 0.52 - 0.60

Green

30.00 Meter Resolution


Band 3: 0.63 - 0.69

Red

30.00 Meter Resolution


Band 4: 0.76 - 1.90

Near IR

30.00 Meter Resolution


Band 5: 1.55 - 1.75

Mid IR

30.00 Meter Resolution


Band 6: 10.4 - 12.5

Thermal

120.00 Meter Resolution


Band 7: 2.08 - 2.35

Mid IR

30.00 Meter Resolution

Landsat 7

ETM+




Band 1: 0.450 - 0.515

Blue

28.50 Meter Resolution


Band 2: 0.525 - 0.605

Green

28.50 Meter Resolution


Band 3: 0.630 - 0.690

Red

28.50 Meter Resolution


Band 4: 0.760 - 1.900

Near IR

28.50 Meter Resolution


Band 5: 1.550 - 1.750

Mid IR

28.50 Meter Resolution

*

Band 6: 10.40 - 12.5

Thermal

57.00 Meter Resolution


Band 7: 2.080 - 2.35

Far IR

28.50 Meter Resolution


Panchromatic




Band 8: 0.52 - 0.92

Pan

14.25 Meter Resolution

Landsat 8

LDCM




Band 1: 0.43 - 0.45

Visible

30.00 Meter Resolution


Band 2: 0.450 - 0.51

Visible

30.00 Meter Resolution


Band 3: 0.53 - 0.59

Visible

30.00 Meter Resolution


Band 4: 0.64 - 0.67

Red

30.00 Meter Resolution


Band 5: 0.85 - 0.88

Near IR

30.00 Meter Resolution

*

Band 6: 1.57 - 1.65

SWIR

30.00 Meter Resolution


Band 7: 2.11 - 2.29

SWIR 2

30.00 Meter Resolution


Band 8: 0.50 - 0.68

Panchromatic

15.00 Meter Resolution


Band 9: 1.36 - 1.38

Cirrus

30.00 Meter Resolution


Band 10: 10.6 - 11.19

TIRS 1

100.00 Meter Resolution


Band 11: 11.5 - 12.51

TIRS 2

100.00 Meter Resolution

* Note: Band 6 on Landsat 7 is divided into Two Bands, High and Low Gain.

Imagery from the Landsat Satellites have been Acquired since 1972, with a variety of characteristics to consider. There have been Six Operational Landsat Satellites, with Three different useful Sensors, all of which are available from Geoscientific Trust. The MSS Sensor provides the Oldest and Lowest Quality Landsat Data and Images are available from 1972. The TM Sensor has improved quality and Images are available from 1984. The ETM+ Sensor on the Landsat 7 Satellite remains the best quality of all the Sensors.

Radiometric Characteristics

Landsat Imagery is acquired in a very precise manner, to better emphasize particular Land Cover aspects. Some of the parameters of this precision involve a Scene's Radiometry, providing distinct characteristics to components of the Image Scene. These measures help determine what the images are good for, from a Science perspective. For example, Bands 1, 2 and 3 are used together to approximate how the Real World appears. Bands 4, 5 or 7 from ETM+ are used in combination with 1, 2 or 3 to demonstrate Vegetation conditions.

Data Format Properties

Landsat Imagery is provided to the user by Geoscientific in a specific series of Formats, all of which are designed for maximum coverage of users who have access to Basic Graphical Software, (please note that we supply Two Basic Software Packages to all New Clients on a 'No Cost Basis' when Landsat Satellite Images are Ordered from Geoscientific).

Each Landsat Scene is available with Bands as separate files, (.tiff Format - Split Layers / files - BSQ Band Sequential Format). A Geo-TIFF file can be used as a TIFF file in any Graphical Software, or if the Client has Spatial Software the Images will be supplied as either. Tiff or .IMG file extensions.

The Georeference Formats employed by Geoscientific for Landsat Imagery include a UTM Projection and a WGS84 Datum and Ellipsoid. In addition to this Georeferenced information, all Landsat Image files acquired from Geoscientific will have been processed using a Re-sampling Technique, namely 'Cubic Convolution' that greatly enhances the visibility of many ground features.

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