Landsat Technical Guide

Overview

Landsat Imagery is relatively High Resolution Earth Observation Data that is acquired through Sensors on one of the NASA Landsat Satellites. The Satellite Sensors acquire High Integrity Images of the Planet surface in a systematic fashion. Users can take this Imagery and use it to determine the health and type of Vegetation, amount of Built Surfaces, success of Agriculture, or apply it for a Myriad other uses like various Geological derived applications as well as various Mineral Exploration activities.

Table 1

Orbit and Acquisition Characteristics


Satellite



Sensor



Swath (km)



Scene Size (km)



Altitude (km)



Revisit (days)



Landsat 1-5



MSS



180



180 x 170



917



18



Landsat 4-5



TM



185



170 x 183



705



18



Landsat 7



ETM+



185



170 x 183



705



16



Landsat 8



LDCM



185



170 x 185



705


16

Table 2

Spectral Resolutions & Spatial Resolutions

* Note: Band 6 on Landsat 7 is divided into Two Bands, High Gain and Low Gain.

Imagery from the Landsat Satellites have been Acquired since 1972, with a variety of characteristics to consider. There have been Six Operational Landsat Satellites, with Three different useful Sensors, all of which are available from Geoscientific Trust. The MSS Sensor provides the Oldest and Lowest Quality Landsat Data and Images are available from 1972. The TM Sensor has improved quality and Images are available from 1984. The ETM+ Sensor on the Landsat 7 Satellite remains the best quality of all the Sensors.

Radiometric Characteristics

Landsat Imagery is acquired in a very precise manner, to better emphasize particular Land Cover aspects. Some of the parameters of this precision involve a Scene's Radiometry, providing distinct characteristics to components of the Image Scene. These measures help determine what the images are good for, from a Science perspective. For example, Bands 1, 2 and 3 are used together to approximate how the Real World appears. Bands 4, 5 or 7 from ETM+ are used in combination with 1, 2 or 3 to demonstrate Vegetation conditions.

Data Format Properties

Landsat Imagery is provided to the user by Geoscientific in a specific series of Formats, all of which are designed for maximum coverage of users who have access to Basic Graphical Software, (Please note that we supply Two Basic Software Packages to all New Clients on a ‘No Cost Basis’ when Landsat Satellite Images are Ordered from Geoscientific).

Each Landsat Scene is available with Bands as separate files, (.tiff Format - Split Layers / files - BSQ Band Sequential Format). A Geo-TIFF file can be used as a TIFF file in any Graphical Software, or if the Client has Spatial Software the Images will be supplied as either. Tiff or .IMG file extensions.

The Georeference Formats employed by Geoscientific for Landsat Imagery include a UTM Projection and a WGS84 Datum and Ellipsoid. In addition to this Georeferenced information, all Landsat Image files acquired from Geoscientific will have been processed using a Re-sampling Technique, namely 'Cubic Convolution' that greatly enhances the visibility of many ground features.

20A Nooitgedacht Street, South Africa, 8301          tel:(082) 789-0643

Website Built By Print Tech


Satellite



Spectral Resolution



Band



Spatial Resolution



Landsat 1-3



MSS






(Meters)






Band 4: 0.50 - 0.60



Green



79.00 Meter Resolution






Band 5: 0.60 - 0.70



Red



79.00 Meter Resolution






Band 6: 0.70 - 0.80



Near IR



79.00 Meter Resolution






Band 7: 0.80 - 1.10



Near IR



79.00 Meter Resolution



Landsat 4-5



MSS












Band 4: 0.50 - 0.60



Green



82.00 Meter Resolution






Band 5: 0.60 - 0.70



Red



82.00 Meter Resolution






Band 6: 0.70 - 0.80



Near IR



82.00 Meter Resolution






Band 7: 0.80 - 1.10



Near IR



82.00 Meter Resolution






TM












Band 1: 0.45 - 0.52



Blue



30.00 Meter Resolution






Band 2: 0.52 - 0.60



Green



30.00 Meter Resolution






Band 3: 0.63 - 0.69



Red



30.00 Meter Resolution






Band 4: 0.76 - 1.90



Near IR



30.00 Meter Resolution






Band 5: 1.55 - 1.75



Mid IR



30.00 Meter Resolution






Band 6: 10.4 - 12.5



Thermal



120.00 Meter Resolution






Band 7: 2.08 - 2.35



Mid IR



30.00 Meter Resolution



Landsat 7



ETM+












Band 1: 0.450 - 0.515



Blue



28.50 Meter Resolution






Band 2: 0.525 - 0.605



Green



28.50 Meter Resolution






Band 3: 0.630 - 0.690



Red



28.50 Meter Resolution






Band 4: 0.760 - 1.900



Near IR



28.50 Meter Resolution






Band 5: 1.550 - 1.750



Mid IR



28.50 Meter Resolution



*



Band 6: 10.40 - 12.5



Thermal



57.00 Meter Resolution






Band 7: 2.080 - 2.35



Far IR



28.50 Meter Resolution






Panchromatic












Band 8: 0.52 - 0.92



Pan



14.25 Meter Resolution



Landsat 8



LDCM












Band 1: 0.43 - 0.45



Visible



30.00 Meter Resolution






Band 2: 0.450 - 0.51



Visible



30.00 Meter Resolution






Band 3: 0.53 - 0.59



Visible



30.00 Meter Resolution






Band 4: 0.64 - 0.67



Red



30.00 Meter Resolution






Band 5: 0.85 - 0.88



Near IR



30.00 Meter Resolution



*



Band 6: 1.57 - 1.65



SWIR



30.00 Meter Resolution






Band 7: 2.11 - 2.29



SWIR 2



30.00 Meter Resolution






Band 8: 0.50 - 0.68



Panchromatic



15.00 Meter Resolution






Band 9: 1.36 - 1.38



Cirrus



30.00 Meter Resolution






Band 10: 10.6 - 11.19



TIRS 1



100.00 Meter Resolution






Band 11: 11.5 - 12.51



TIRS 2



100.00 Meter Resolution